SBI PO Preliminary English Language Practice quiz 9
Directions(1 - 10): In each of the following questions four words are given, of which two words are most nearly the same or opposite in meaning. Find the two words which are most nearly the same or opposite in meaning. Q. (A) covert (B) fanatic (C) obvious (D) flimsy
Directions(6 - 10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering of the questions. Poverty reduction — and ‘its eventual elimination — has been one of the major goals of development policy in India since Independence. Several poverty alleviation programmes have been in place for a long time now. There are numerous centrally-sponsored schemes (CSS), designed by the Centre, administered by the Ministry of Rural Development, but implemented by the States, with the States generally contributing 25 per cent to the cost.
Though there has been some reduction in the percentage of people below the poverty line since the 1970s, the problem still remains formidable with over 260 million people living below the poverty line.
The major weaknesses of the plethora of poverty alleviation programmes launched over the years have been the overlapping of schemes, thin spread of resources over a wide area, inadequate preparatory work before their launch, lack of proper coordination between the Central and State governments, inadequate funding by banks of trained staff at the ground level and poor governance and delivery resulting in widespread leakages and corruption.
Apart from wage employment and nutrition programmes, and public distribution system, the accent over the past two decades has been on self-employment programmes to reduce rural poverty. The idea was to provide alternative livelihood opportunities to the surplus labour force that is forced to depend on agriculture. Self-employment programmes launched over the years have not been able to empower beneficiaries in the true sense of the term by enabling them to earn an income sufficient to lift them out of poverty.
In this connection, the findings and recommendations of the report of the Committee on Credit Related Issues under SGSY released recently by the Ministry of Rural Development, the Government would be of help for the new UPA Government in formulating the future strategy relating to self employment programmes.
The Committee has focused attention on the working of the Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY). However, the recommendations of the committee are relevant in dealing with the prevailing shortcomings of the self-employment programmes launched over the years.
After experimenting with numerous self-employment programmes, they were modified, consolidated and integrated into Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) in April 1999.
However, even after a decade, the achievements of the scheme are far from satisfactory proving that mere consolidation of schemes is no panacea for the prevailing shortcomings. Among the important recommendations of the Committee are: creation of National Rural Livelihood Mission with an initial corpus of Rs 1,000 crore for rapid increase in the coverage of rural households under self-employment; extension of pro−poorfinancialservices in a time-bound manner; creation of an agency or an umbrella organization at the state level for helping to create SHGs and nurturing them; and restructuring the programmed to include training for skill development and help providing skill based employment along with self-employment.
The panel also emphasizes the need to ensure credit outreach by a bigger role to lead banks, use of mobile banking, allowing banks to use the services of NGOs, microfinance institutions and civil society organizations as intermediaries.
Clearly, there is a need for fresh thinking and innovation to make the self-employment programmes more meaningful in empowering the rural poor with better skills and training. There is also a need to avoid overlapping of various schemes aimed at achieving the same or similar objectives through merger or better co-ordination The government has already announced that it wants to consolidate flagship programmes for employment, education, rural infrastructure, with emphasis on skill development.
It has also promised that the restructuring of various schemes would be accompanied by governance reforms for effective delivery of services. The task is formidable but not impossible.
Q.According to the author which of the following is/are the problem/s facing the Poverty Allevation Programmes.
(A) Introduction of many schemes at a time aimed at achieving the same objective. (B) The resources as compared to the area are less. (C) Lack of awareness about the importance of these programmes.