Tuesday, 15 December 2015

Critical Reasoning Statement Argument

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Directions: In making decisions about important questions, it is desirable to be able to distinguish between "Strong" arguments and "Weak” arguments in so far as they relate to the question. "Strong" arguments are those which are both important and directly related to the question. "Weak" arguments are those which are of minor importance and also may not be directly related to the question or may be related to a trivial aspect of the question.

Instructions: Each question below is followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments is a strong argument and which is a weak argument. Give answer

1) if only argument I is strong.
2) if only argument II is strong.
3) if either I or II is strong.
4) if neither I nor II is strong and
5) if both I and II are strong.

1. Statement: Should government-established higher level Institutes of Technology (IITs) be privatised?

I. Yes, privatisation will make these institutes financially healthy, competitive and quality-conscious.
II. Yes, privatisation is the key of the new era - can we survive without it?

Ans: 1; Argument 1 is advantageous. Argument II has lack of any theme.

2. Statement: Should vacations of court judges be reduced ?

I. Yes, it will speed up judicial process and many people are likely to get justice in reasonable time.
II. Yes, it is a sign of British legacy, why should we carry it further?

Ans: 1; I is a strong argument. If we have more working days, it is natural that more work can be done. Good qualitiesor system of even our enemy can be adopted. Hence II is weak.

3. Statement: Should the practice of transfers of clerical cadre employees from one city to another government office be stopped?

I. No, transfer of employees is o routine administrative matter and we must continue it.
II. Yes, it involves lot of governmental expenditure and inconvenience to many compared to the benefits it yields.

Ans: 2; It is not necessary that any practice which has been continued for a long time be right. Hence I is a weak argument. Argument II is strong.

4.Statement: Should higher qualification be the only criteria for internal promotions in any organisation?

I. Yes, why not? In fact only high or qualification is more important than other factors.
II. No, quality of performance and other factors are more important than mere higher qualification in case of internal promotion

Ans: 2; Neither the reason nor other factors are given in Argument 1. Hence, it is weak. On the same grounds II is strong.

5. Statement: Should Indian scientists working abroad be called back to India?

I. Yes, they must serve the motherland first and forget about discoveries, honours, facilities and all.
II. No, we have enough talent. let them stay where they want.

Ans: 4; I is not strong. The individual's demands are as important as the motherland's. II is weak because of its complacent attitude.

6. Statement: Should getting primary education be incorporated as a fundamental right in India?

I No, what is the use? Have we fulfilled our duties regarding other fundamental rights?
II. Yes, this is what all the developed countries have done.

Ans: 4; I is distorting the argument. II is based on an example which may not apply to India.

7. Statement: Should scheme of lotteries be completely stopped in India?

I. No, many state governments will have to stop some of their developmental activities which they fund from surplus generated by their lottery scheme.
II. No, many unemployed youth who sell lottery tickets to earn their livelihood will face hardship.

Ans: 5; Both are strong because from the economic point of view we can't ignore either unemployment or revenue loss.

8. Statement: Should dependents of India's freedom fighters be given benefits of reservation, in jobs?

I. Yes, We should keep the dependents happy as the freedom fighters have fought for a noble cause.
II. No. We already have too many reservations; let us not add to it.

Ans: 1; I is strong because it will bolster patriotic sentiments. II is not strong because it is not necessary than an extra reservation quota be created. The new category may be adjusted within earlier limits.

9. Statement: With the opening of the economy in India, should all workers unions be banned?

I. No, workers unions are not banned in the other economically advanced countries.
II. No, a level-headed worker' s union can really do wonders both for workers and economy.

Ans:  4; I is based on example, Hence does not follow. II is a vague argument.

10. Statement: Should we grant permission to reputed private companies to construct civil airports for general use in India?

I. Yes, why not? It would be both economical and effective.
II. No, it may pose danger to security and safely of India.

Ans:  2; II is strong because national security is a priority area

11. Statement: Should computer knowledge be made a compulsory subject for all students at secondary school certificate (S SC.) examination in India'?

I. No, our need is 'bread' for everyone, we cannot follow western models.
II. Yes, we cannot enter the year 2000 without equipping our children with computers.

Ans: 2; I is weak because bread and education are two different things. Comparison of these two has no sense. Both should go parallel. II is strong. In this hi-tech world it should be compulsory for our children to know about computers.

12. Statement: Should 'literacy" be the minimum criterion for becoming a voter in India?

I. No, mere literacy is no guarantee of political maturity of an individual.
II. Yes, illiterate people are less likely to make politically wiser decision of voting for a right candidate or party.

Ans: 5

13. Statement: Should schemes of voluntary retirement be introduced in all sick - public sector units in India?

I. Yes, excess and inefficient staff is one of the reasons of sickness of public sector organisations.
II. Yes, this is what private and multinational companies do in developed countries.

Ans: 1

14. Statement: Should postal services be privatised in India?

I. Yes, it will make life easy for the citizens of India.
II. No, privatisation is not a panacea for all the problems, even private service can be equally bad.

Ans: 2

15. Statement: Should system of offering jobs only towards of government employees be introduced in allgovernments offices in India?

I. No. it denies opportunity to many deserving individuals and government may stand to loose in the long run.
II. No, it is against the principle of equality and does government not owe responsibility to all its citizens?

Ans: 5

16. Statement: Should one close relative of a retiring government employee be given a job in government in India?

I. Yes, where else will the relative get a job like this.
II. No, it will close doors of government service to competent and needy youth.

Ans:  2; I is weak because we can't vitiate the system for one individual. II is strong. As the seats will be filled by close relatives of government employees, competent and other needy youths won't get entry for govt, services.

17. Statement: Should purchase of gold by individuals be restricted in India to improve its foreign exchange position

I. Yes, interference on customers right and freedom is desirable.
II. No, business interest has to be guarded first

Ans:  4; I is weak because such interference cannot be desirable in a democracy. II is weak because it gives priority to business interest on foreign exchange position, which would not be in the interest of the country,

18. Statement: Should teaching of 'Sanskrit' be made compulsory at school level in India?

I. No, where are the trained teachers to teach this language
II. Yes, we should be proud of our ancient language.

Ans:  Argument I presupposes the absence of trained teachers Which is not true. II is strong because cultural ground can't be neglected.

19. Statement: Should all education be mode free for girls and women of all ages in India?

I. No, this will weaken our present social structure
II. Yes, this is the only way to bring back gory to Indian womanhood.

Ans: 4; II is weak because of the term only in that argument. Free education may weaken the economic condition of of a country. Talking about weakening of social structure by giving free education to women and girl is senseless

20. Statement: Should private colleges offering professional courses like Engineering, Medical, management be banned in India?

I. Yes, such courses should be run by Government Colleges only.
II. Yes, no other country allows private colleges to run professional courses.

Ans: 4; II is an example. Example is generally a weak argument. All countries may have different constitutions, different financial status, difference in population etc. Hence II is weak argument. I suggests only alternate arrangement The reasons of banning are not given. Hence I, too, is weak argument.

21. Statement: Should slum-dwellers be provided free houses in big cities and metropolises?

I. No, most of the slum dwellers are poor and illiterate.
II. Yes, providing food and shelter to every citizen is the responsibility of any welfare state.

Ans: 4; I is weak On the contrary, poverty and illiteracy should induce us to bestow favour upon slum-dwellers. II is weak because the question here is not only providing shelter but providing it free.

22. Statement: Should polythene bags be banned in India?

I. No, the polythene bags are very cheap and are very convenient.
II. Yes, that is what many countries are doing.

Ans: 1; Economic advantage and user-friendliness are strong reasons. Hence I is strong. II is weak because it is tantamount to following other countries blindly,

23. Statement: Should military service for short duration be made compulsory to all eligible youth in India?

I. Yes. Indian defence forces are badly in need of jawans and officers.
II. Yes, it will inculcate discipline and national pride in youth.

Ans: 1; I is strong. Such a binding will definitely compensate for the lack of regulars in our armed forces. II is weak. Discipline and pride can be inculcated through other, less expensive, less rigorous means, such as NCC, Scouts, etc.

24. Statement: Should military training of 3 years be made compulsory to all able-bodied youths in India?

I. Yes, similar practice is being followed in some developed countries.
II. No, compulsion spoils the best in everything.

Ans: 4; It is possible that the condition of India is different from those of developed countries; e.g. The developed countries have small population compared to India. Hence following them always is not wise. Hence I is not strong.
II is not strong because it shies away from being specific. Such generalisations are usually weak arguments.

25. Statement: Should Government standardize rent for rented houses in big cities in India?

I. No, it is an interference in the relationship between landlord and tenant.
II. Yes, Government can do it, provided it has political will to do it.

Ans: 4; I is hardly an argument. It merely states the obvious. It says nothing about why the Govt should not interfere.
II deviates from the question. The questions is why the Govt should do it, not whether it can do it.

26. Statement: Should old and poorly maintained petrol diesel vehicles like autorickshaws and taxis which generate heavy pollution be banned for public services in big cities?

I. Yes, it will reduce pollution level in these cities which will enhance health of citizen.
II. No, what will the poor auto rickshaw /taxi driver do for their survival?

Ans: 1; I is strong because health can't be neglected. II is weak because it is a cry of desperation. Note that it is not strong enough to aver that survival is not possible.

27. Statement: Should Government-dependent loss-making academic institutes like universities/colleges be closed down in India?

I. Yes, they are only creating batches of unemployable young graduates.
II. Yes, none of the developed countries support universities by such massive financing.

Ans: 1; I is strong. We cannot afford to have for the masses an education that is not oriented towards employment. II is not strong because it does not go into the reason why developed countries don't go for such financing.

28. Statement: Should the system of paying minimum purchase price for farmers for wheat, rice and the like be scrapped in India?

I. No, farmers who produce our staple food must get decent return on their investment and labour in a Welfare State like India.
II. Yes, it is an outdated practice which we must discard

Ans: 1; I is strong because of the Welfare State theory. But II does not give a proper reason. It vaguely terms the practice as "outdated".

29. Statement: Should India switch over to capitalist economy from the present mixed one?

I. No, for this to happen there will be a need of conditional amendments and our prestige will lower.
II. Yes, this is the only way out adopted by developing countries.

Ans: 4; Whenever it has been required, we have amended our constitution. It is illogical and foolish to relate it to our prestige. Hence I is a weak argument. Every developing country is the product of its own circumstances. Hence it is not necessary that India also go on the path of other developing countries.

30. Statement: Should admission in schools be controlled by the state government concerned?

I. Yes, it will reduce the importance of the members of the school management.
II. No, this will result in delays, compromise with the quality of schools, and give rise to corruption.

Ans: 2; The main purpose of decentralisation of power is to run the functions of all units properly. You can't concentrate on all units if you have so many departments to watch over. Hence II is strong. I is weak because it sort of merely rephrases the statement.

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